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Scholars' stand on the categories of Tawheed

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  • Scholars' stand on the categories of Tawheed

    well, for those who wish to be delighted by the non bidaness that the ash'aris and sufis categorically label us with then here are some proofs

    It should be understood that the current terminology and classification of the different Sharee'ah sciences mostly were not used by either of the first three generations or "the Salaf us-Saalih " at all.

    It would be rare to find any of them using some of the terms that are so common today such as "Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah" or "Tawheed Ar-Rooboobiyyah" or "Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat". Rather, we see them referring to Tawheed generally as one subject.

    However, later generations divided these classifications of Tawheed for the purposes of teaching and categorizing the different aspects of Allaah's Tawheed. Some of them, such as Ibn Al-Qayyim, only referred to two categories of Tawheed as he said, in his explanation of the Tawheed as it has come from the Qur'aan in Surat Al-Kaafiroon and Al-Ikhlaas:

    "…and they have both covered the two types of Tawheed, for which there is no salvation nor any success without them. And they are Tawheed Al-'Ilm wa'l-'Atiqaad…(i.e. the Tawheed of Knowledge and Beliefs)" - and he, may Allaah be merciful to him, goes on to explain this category, until he said, - "…and the second, is Tawheed Al-Qasd wa'l-Iraadah…(i.e. Tawheed of Intention and Purpose.)" - and likewise, he goes on to explain this category. ["Badaa'a Al-Fawaa'id ", Vol. 1/145-146]

    And the point here is that Tawheed Al-'Ilm wa'l-'Atiqaad includes His Names and Attributes from the point of view of what we know and believe concerning Allah. And the Tawheed Al-Qasd wa'l-Iraadah includes them as well from the point of view of how we worship Allaah according to His Names and Attributes. So this was an alternate way of explaining and classifying Tawheed while giving emphasis to two aspects instead of three.
    And likewise, Ibn Abee Al-'Izz, may Allaah be merciful to him, said in his chapter of Tawheed:

    "Further, the Tawheed to which the Messengers invited and which was the main context of the revealed Books are of two kinds:
    i) Tawheed fi'l-Ithbaat wa'l-Maa'rifah (Tawheed of Acknowledgement and Knowledge): The first is to acknowledge the Being (and existence) of Allaah, the Most High, along with all His Attributes, Acts and Names. In this, He is unique. There is none like Him in all these characteristics - as Allaah Himself and His Messengers informed us. And ii) Tawheed fi'l-Talib wa'l-Qasd (Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent): The second, the Tawheed of Solicitation and Intent, has been well defined by the following short chapter from the Qur'aan: [Say: O you disbelievers… (Al-Kaafiroon, 1)] And: [Say: O People of the Book, come to an equitable term between yourselves and us, that we shall worship none but Allaah… (Aal-'Imraan, 64)] [Look to "Sharh' Al-'Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah" eng. Trans. Pg. 8-9, published by Al-Attique]

    And it is worth mentioning that Ibn Abee Al-'Izz mentioned this classification of two categories, only a few pages after explaining Tawheed with the three common categories; "Tawheed Al-'Uloohiyyah" and "Tawheed Ar-Rooboobiyyah" and "Tawheed Asmaa' wa Sifaat".

    But it was not strange for him to classify Tawheed in one manner and explain it using these categories and then explain it an alternate way with the use of only two categories as they both aid the understanding of Tawheed and that which it covers. And this occurs within the same precise chapter! It is also interesting to point out that Ibn Abee Al-'Izz spends much of this chapter in refuting the people of Bid'ah who have denied certain aspects of Tawheed. And this was due to their understanding of what Tawheed includes and implies, yet the classification and categorization of Tawheed was not important as he, himself used two alternate methods of classification for the purpose of explaining and emphasizing its implications and components.

    "However, some scholars have reduced these three types of Tawheed to two; One in knowledge and belief, which include Tawheed of Allaah in His Lordship and Names and Attributes, and one type in Al-Iraadah and Al-Qasd (Will and Intention) which is Tawheed of Allaah in His Worship. See: "Sharh Al-Aqeedah At-Tahawiyyah" Pg. 88 and "Fat'h Al-Majeed", Pg. 15 and "Sharh Qaseedat Ibn Al-Qayyim", Vol. 2/259 and "Tatheer Al-I'tiqaad", Pg. 3" ["Kitaab Al-Eemaan " eng. Trans. Pg. 14-15 ff., published by Al-Firdous Ltd, London]


    Also
    'Allaamah as-Safaareenee - may God's mercy be upon him - said: "Know that Tawheed has three divisions: Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah (the Oneness of God in His Lordship), Tawheed al- Uloohiyyah (to single-out Almighty God alone for worship) and Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat (the uniqueness of God's Names and Attributes)." [Lawaami' al-Anwaarul-Bahiyyah (1/128) of as-Safaareenee]

    So Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah implies: A firm and definite belief that Almighty God alone is the Creator, the Master and Owner, and the Command is for none but Him."
    "And Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah is to single-out God alone for all worship and not to worship anything along with Him, whether it be an angel, a Messenger, a prophet, a pious person, a tree, a stone, the sun, the moon, or other than these."

    "And Tawheed al-Asmaa was-Sifaat is the uniqueness of Almighty God - the Most High - with regards to His Names and His Attributes, by affirming that which God has affirmed for Himself - whether in His Book (i.e. the Qur'an) or by the tongue of His Messenger - may the peace and blessings of God be upon him - without Tahreef (distorting the Names and Attributes), Ta'teel (denial of the Names and Attributes), Takyeef (saying how they are), or Tamztheel (making any resemblance with the creation)."

    The one who does not call to Tawheed and the correction of the Aqeedah, is like the one ....."who seeks to cure a body whose head has been cut off, since the place of the Aqeedah in the religion is like the head with regards to the body" by Shaykh Rabee bin Hadee al-Madkhalee in al-manhaj al-anbiyaa fee Dawaah ill-allaah]

    And likewise Imaam Ibn Abi Izz al-Hanafee in his sharh of Aqeedatu-Tahaawiyyah mentioned the tawheed of Ibaada

    and all of this shows the deduction of the ulema throughout the eras in their advancement and particularization that this matter of Islam, tawheed, is among the sciences that excelled just as other areas of Islamic sciences and it is through ignorance to say that it is innovation to categorize tawheed and what is even more repugnantly said and foolish is the following claim that Ibn Taymiyyah was the first to start this bida.

    In reality all of these deductions, if classified as bida, fall under the ruling of all other deduction in the religion in different sceicnes and they do not classify as "bidatu-Shar'iyyah" but rather "bida al-amm" general innovations that are among the matters of dunya speculization of education and knowledge.
    ابو نعيمة علي البريكي


    "I have debated with the Ash'aris
    and it has become clear to me that they believe that Allah does not exist"


    May Allah hasten the Muslims back to the path
    that granted victory to them before.


    http://islamthought.wordpress.com/

    http://www.islamic-life.com/forums/

  • #2
    Here are a few more quotations of scholars discussing these two categories of Tawheed.

    Please note that what is important is that the scholars discussed these two categories whether they used the terms “Uloohiyyah” and “Ruboobiyyah” or not.

    * al-Tabari in his tafseer 3/336 said: “(everything in heavens and earth) submitted to Allah with worship, and admitted His uniqueness in Ruboobiyyah, and followed Him with sensere Tawheed and Uloohiyyah, willingly or unwillingly.”

    * al-Tabari in his tafseer 5/77 said: “surrender to Allah with obedience, and admit His uniqueness in Ruboobiyyah, and be sincere to Him by adhering to His order and staying away from His prohibitions. And do not take a partner with Him in Ruboobiyyah or worship.”

    * al-Tabari in his tafseer 16/39 said: “(let him) be sincere to Him in worship and admitting uniqueness in Ruboobiyyah.”

    * al-Tabari in his tafseer 23/182 said: “nothing deserves to be worshiped and deserves unique Ruboobiyyah except Allah.”

    to be continued Inshallah …
    Always remember … without total fluency in the Arabic language, you can only attain basic Islamic knowledge ... but basic knowledge is the path to advanced knowledge
    haitham_hamdan@hotmail.com

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    • #3
      I found something interesting.

      Ibn Arabi, the shaikh al Akbar of Sufis himself categorized Tawhid.

      I got it from another site ready translated:

      It is interesting to note that Ibn Taymîyyah’s explanation of Tawhîd (Islamic monotheism) by designating 3 categories is not exclusive to him. Below are excerpts from Muhyî ad-Dîn ibn `Arabî’s work of Sufi enlightenment entitled al-Futûhât al-Makkîyyah.


      Tawhîd ar-Rubûbîyyah

      والفطرة علم التوحيد التي فطر الله الخلق عليها حين أشهدهم حين قبضهم من ظهورهم ألست بربكم قالوا بلى فشاهدوا الربوبية قبل كل شيء
      “The nature is inclined to knowledge of at-Tawhîd which is the nature Allâh has placed in His creation from when they testified of Him (at the time of the pre-worldly covenent or mîthâq) until when they are siezed by their backs and asked, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ to which they will reply, ‘Indeed!’ Thus, they have testified to ar-Rubûbîyyah before everything.”
      [al-Futûhât al-Makîyyah, Muhyî ad-Dîn ibn `Arabî]


      Tawhîd al-Ulûhîyyah

      وسمى مشركاً لكونه نسب الألوهية إلى غير الله مع الله
      “And they are called mushrik due to their association of al-Ulûhîyyah to other than Allâh with Allâh..”
      [al-Futûhât al-Makîyyah, Muhyî ad-Dîn ibn `Arabî]


      Tawhîd al-Asmâ’ was-Siffât (also termed Tawhîd as-Siffât)

      ومن أوتر بثلاث فهو توحيد الألوهة ومن أوتر بخمس فهو توحيد القلب ومن أوتر بسبع فهو توحيد الصفات ومن أوتر بتسع فقد جمع في كل ثلاث توحيد الذات وتوحيد الصفات وتوحيد الأفعال
      “..and he who takes by the odd number of three, that is Tawhîd al-Ulûhîyyah; and who takes by the odd number of five, that is Tawhîd al-Qalb; and he who takes by the odd number of seven, that is Tawhîd as-Siffât; and who takes by the odd number of nine, then he has combined all three of the Tawhîd ath-Dhaat, and Tawhîd as-Siffât, and Tawhîd al-Af`âl)..”
      [al-Futûhât al-Makîyyah, Muhyî ad-Dîn ibn `Arabî]
      .

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      • #4
        * Imam Abu ‘Hanifah RA said in al-Fiqh al-Awsat: Allah is to be asked with the intention that he is above, not below, because being below is neither of Ruboobiyyah nor Uloohiyyah .

        * ibn Katheer RA said in his tafseer 3/553: Allah frequently established the status of Uloohiyyah by the fact that (non believers) confess to Tawheed al-Ruboobiyyah.

        * ibn Katheer RA said in his tafseer 4/309: This is a place for proving Ruboobiyyah, and proving Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah.

        * ibn abil Izz said in his Sharh of the Ta’hawiwwah page 10: so it became known that what is required is Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah, which is enclusive of Taweeh al-Ruboobiyyah.
        Always remember … without total fluency in the Arabic language, you can only attain basic Islamic knowledge ... but basic knowledge is the path to advanced knowledge
        haitham_hamdan@hotmail.com

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        • #5
          Even Shaikh Abu Ghuddah, whom the Khalafis consider as one of them said in his book (Kalimaat fee Kashf Abaateel waftiraa’aat):

          The division of Tawheed to: Ruboobiyyah, Uloohiyyah and Asma’ and Sifat was mentioned by the three Imams: ibn Taymiyyah, ibn al-Qayyim and Muhammad bin Abdilwahhaab RAA.

          This division is technical. Scholars obtained it from countless locations in Quran and Sunnah; in response to the polyethists of Macca, who believed in Tawheedur Ruboobiyyah, bit not Tawheedul Uloohiyyah.

          (This division is also) in Suratul Fatiha which people recite several times daily.”
          Always remember … without total fluency in the Arabic language, you can only attain basic Islamic knowledge ... but basic knowledge is the path to advanced knowledge
          haitham_hamdan@hotmail.com

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          • #6
            Originally posted by Haitham Hamdan View Post
            Even Shaikh Abu Ghuddah, whom the Khalafis consider as one of them said in his book (Kalimaat fee Kashf Abaateel waftiraa’aat):

            The division of Tawheed to: Ruboobiyyah, Uloohiyyah and Asma’ and Sifat was mentioned by the three Imams: ibn Taymiyyah, ibn al-Qayyim and Muhammad bin Abdilwahhaab RAA.

            This division is technical. Scholars obtained it from countless locations in Quran and Sunnah; in response to the polyethists of Macca, who believed in Tawheedur Ruboobiyyah, bit not Tawheedul Uloohiyyah.

            (This division is also) in Suratul Fatiha which people recite several times daily.”

            Wasn't Shaykh Abu Ghudda in essence a follower of al-Kawthari? The book you named above - is it not an attack on Shaykh al-Albanee?

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            • #7
              he was his student but thats it

              he is about as much different to kawthari as a japanese earthling is to a marshian arachnoid creature


              i dont think abu ghuddah attacked al-albanee, considering he spoke highly of him.

              it may be at best just a mere criticism of an understanding al-albanee had

              asalamu alaikum
              ابو نعيمة علي البريكي


              "I have debated with the Ash'aris
              and it has become clear to me that they believe that Allah does not exist"


              May Allah hasten the Muslims back to the path
              that granted victory to them before.


              http://islamthought.wordpress.com/

              http://www.islamic-life.com/forums/

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by Abu Zahra View Post
                Wasn't Shaykh Abu Ghudda in essence a follower of al-Kawthari? The book you named above - is it not an attack on Shaykh al-Albanee?
                Yes, Shaikh abu Ghuddah was a follower of al-Kawthari, and he had a negative position of Shaikh Albani.
                But this is exactly my point. Although, abu Ghuddah was not a supporter of the "Salafis", he was in favor of the three categories of Tawheed.

                Originally posted by al-boriqee View Post
                he is about as much different to kawthari as a japanese earthling is to a marshian arachnoid creature
                Brother al-Boriqee, you made me laugh ... Jazakallahu khairan
                Always remember … without total fluency in the Arabic language, you can only attain basic Islamic knowledge ... but basic knowledge is the path to advanced knowledge
                haitham_hamdan@hotmail.com

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                • #9
                  Funny thing is that some Salafis fight over the categorisation of Tawheed nowadays!!! while it's not a big problem, it's not in the Qur'an or the Sunnah that you have to use three categories or only two!!!

                  Just thought to put this comment as we have this problem here in Egypt, they even call each others "Mubtade3" (Innovator)!!! May Allah guide them ...
                  قَالَ ابْنُ قُدَامَةَ: فَإِنَّ مُهْلِكَ نَفْسِهِ فِي طَلَبِ إِصْلَاحِ غَيْرِهِ سَفِيهٌ، وَمَثَلُهُ مَثَلُ مَنْ دَخَلَتِ الْعَقَارِبُ تَحْتَ ثِيَابِهِ وَهُوَ يَذُبُّ الذُّبَابَ عَنْ غَيْرِهِ.

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                  • #10
                    Refer to Volume 1, page 113 of the book جهود العلماء الحنفية في إبطال عقائد القبورية، للدكتور شمس الدين السلفي الأفغاني "The struggles of the Hanafi Scholars in Refuting the Beliefs of the Quborees" by Dr. Shams Al Din Al Salafi Al Afghani. You can download the book here http://dc37.4shared.com/download/589...10926-49e84d72 It is definitely an excellent resource to have.

                    In his footnote he lists a number of Hanafi sources that categorized Tawheed into three: Ruboobiyah, Ulhoohiyah and Names and Attributes.

                    He gives the following sources:

                    Sharh Al Tahaawiya (76), Daar Al Bayaan wal Manih Al Azhaar for Qaari (14-16), Jalaaa' Al 'Aynayn (521) for No'maan Al Alooosi, Al Jawaab al Faseeh (27), Al Aqeedah Al Sinniyah for Nadawy (21-22), Fath Al Mannaan for Shukri Al Aloosi (451), Al Tafseer Al Qayyim lil Nadawi (24) and Al Aqeedah Awalan for Dr. Al Qaari (11)
                    www.call-to-monotheism.com

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                    • #11
                      This is an excellent thread MASHA-ALLAH!

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                      • #12
                        Originally posted by Bassam Zawadi View Post
                        Refer to Volume 1, page 113 of the book جهود العلماء الحنفية في إبطال عقائد القبورية، للدكتور شمس الدين السلفي الأفغاني "The struggles of the Hanafi Scholars in Refuting the Beliefs of the Quborees" by Dr. Shams Al Din Al Salafi Al Afghani. You can download the book here http://dc37.4shared.com/download/589...10926-49e84d72 It is definitely an excellent resource to have.

                        In his footnote he lists a number of Hanafi sources that categorized Tawheed into three: Ruboobiyah, Ulhoohiyah and Names and Attributes.

                        He gives the following sources:

                        Sharh Al Tahaawiya (76), Daar Al Bayaan wal Manih Al Azhaar for Qaari (14-16), Jalaaa' Al 'Aynayn (521) for No'maan Al Alooosi, Al Jawaab al Faseeh (27), Al Aqeedah Al Sinniyah for Nadawy (21-22), Fath Al Mannaan for Shukri Al Aloosi (451), Al Tafseer Al Qayyim lil Nadawi (24) and Al Aqeedah Awalan for Dr. Al Qaari (11)
                        The link is not working

                        المرأة المسلمة تهز المهد بيمينها و تزلزل عروش الكفر بشمالها
                        The muslimah rocks the cradle with her right hand and shakes the thrones of kufr with her left.

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                        • #13
                          The Shias also divide Tawheed into categories. I can provide references if need be, insha-Allah.

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                          • #14
                            ^ Please do. Jazakah Allah Khayran.

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                            • #15
                              Tawheed Categorisation in the Qur'an:
                              Allah(azzawajal) says: (meaning)
                              [Allah is] the Rabb of the heavens and the earth and all that is between
                              them, Ar-Rahmaan(whose mercy encompasses everything), so worship Him alone
                              and be patient and firm on His worship, do you know of any who is similar to
                              Him
                              ? [Surah al-Maryam 19:65]

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